By E. Amul. Minnesota State University Moorhead.
Although I am prejudiced against all sugar from a health standpoint telmisartan 20mg visa, my testing revealed no benzene telmisartan 80mg visa, propyl alcohol buy telmisartan 40mg low price, wood alcohol cheap 20mg telmisartan otc. However it does contain sorghum mold and must be treated with vitamin C to detoxify it. Get at least 4 flavors for variety: linden blossom, orange blossom, plain clover and local or wild flower honey. Add just enough water to keep the fruit from sticking as it is cooked (usually a few tablespoons). Soups All home made soups are nutritious and safe, provided you use no processed ingredients (like bouillon), or make them in metal pots. Always add a dash of vitamin C or tomato juice or vinegar to draw out calcium from soup bones for you to absorb. It can be taken straight from the freezer, rinsed, and placed in ¼ inch of milk (unboiled is fine) in the frying pan. Seven Day Sample Menu Because processed foods have many toxins, you must cook as much from scratch as possible. Or you could make a hot soup for dinner, refrigerate, and eat the leftovers for lunch. Try baking several potatoes at one time, refrigerate and put them in a salad the next night. Variety is the spice of life, so combine the allowed foods in the most creative ways you can imagine. Too Sick To Cook, Too Tired To Eat Pick three meals from the sample menu that need no cooking and eat them every day. Even if you have dry skin, difficult hair or some other unique requirement, just pure borax will satisfy these needs. A part of every skin problem is due to the toxic elements found in the soaps themselves. It does this by impregnating the skin and attracting water, giving the illusion of moist skin. In fact you simply have moist aluminum stuck in your skin which your immune system must remove. When you have used it down to the undissolved granules, add more water and shake again. It does not contain cobalt (the blue or green gran- ules) which causes heart disease and draws cancer parasites to the skin. It is the main ingredient of non- chlorine bleach and has excellent cleaning power without fading colors. For bleaching (only do this occasionally) use original chlorine bleach (not “new improved” or “with special brighteners”, and so forth). Any dish soap that you use should be safe enough to eat because nothing rinses off clean. Start each day by steril- izing your sponge (it harbors Salmonella) or with a new one while the used one dries for three full days. It does not lather but goes right to work removing sweat and soil without stripping your color or natural oils. Hair gets squeaky clean so quickly (just a few squirts does it) that you might think nothing has happened! Only citric acid is strong enough to get the borax out, lemon juice and vinegar are not. All hair shampoo penetrates the eye lids and gets into the eyes although you do not feel it. Remarkably a little lemon juice (not from a bottle) has some holding power and no odor! Pour 3 cups of very cold water (refrigerate water overnight first) into the 2-quart saucepan. Slowly and carefully add the lye, a little bit at a time, stir- ring it with a wooden or plastic utensil. In olden days, a sassafras branch was used to stir, imparting a fra- grance and insect deterrent for mosquitoes, lice, fleas, ticks. Meanwhile, the unwrapped lard should be warming up to room temperature in the plastic dishpan. Pour 95% grain alcohol (190 proof) to this mark (for 50% grain alcohol or vodka make your mark one fifth of the way up). Use this for general sanitizing purposes: bathroom fixtures, knobs, handles, canes, walkers, and for personal cleanliness (but use chlorine bleach for the toilet bowl once a week).
Rarely order telmisartan 80mg on line, it is antibiotics used to treat classic tuberculosis for implicated in opportunistic infections in patients with which susceptibility testing is performed by the shunts discount telmisartan 40 mg on line, prosthetic heart values purchase telmisartan 40mg visa, or hepatoperitoneal disk diﬀusion method on Middlebrook 7H10 or disease order telmisartan 80mg online. Vancomycin, methicillin, and carbenicillin ﬁrst-line drug-resistant tuberculosis include D. How long should Mycobacterium The patient may not respond to therapy, even when tuberculosis–positive cultures be kept by the the organism is susceptible to the antibiotics in vitro; laboratory after identification and antibiotic therefore, cultures must be kept for up to 1 year in susceptibility testing have been performed? A positive smear has a Microbiology/Apply principles of special predictive value of 96% when all laboratory and procedures/Mycobacteria/2 clinical ﬁndings are considered. Individuals showing a positive puriﬁed protein evaluate cell wall lipid patterns for identiﬁcation. It is a cause of complex fails to grow in culture and has a tuberculosis in immunocompromised humans, characteristic “croissant-like” morphology in but is also known to cause tuberculosis in stained smears? Which two mycobacteria commonly isolated from Answers to Questions 30–32 subcutaneous skin have an optimal growth temperature of 30°C? Which mycobacterium is associated with Crohn’s has been isolated from the intestines of humans with disease? All of the following are examples of appropriate Answers to Questions 1–4 specimens for the recovery of fungi except: A. Generally, swabs are inadequate Microbiology/Apply knowledge to identify sources of for the recovery of fungi because they are easily error/Mycology/1 contaminated by surrounding skin ﬂora. Te India ink stain is used as a presumptive test meningitis because positive staining results are for the presence of which organism? B Superficial dermatophytes rarely invade the deeper tissues and are the cause of most cutaneous 4. Fungal infections of the skin usually indicates an infection with a: are most often caused by Microsporum spp. Candida species Microbiology/Correlate clinical and laboratory data/ Mycology/2 445 446 Chapter 7 | Microbiology 5. Which of the following yeast enzymes is detected identiﬁcation of an unknown yeast isolate? Nitrate reductase Microbiology/Select methods/Reagents/Media/ Microbiology/Apply knowledge of fundamental Mycology/2 biological characteristics/Mycology/2 6. An isolate produced a constriction that was Answers to Questions 5–10 interpreted as a positive germ tube, but Candida albicans was ruled out when conﬁrmatory tests 5. Which of the following fungi is yeast cell) is approximately one-half the width and the most likely identiﬁcation? Cornmeal agar with Tween 80 is used to identify hyphae without constriction, and therefore the test which characteristic of an unknown yeast isolate? Blastoconidia and arthroconidia The other three species of yeast listed do not form C. D Cornmeal agar with Tween 80 (polysorbate) reduces Microbiology/Apply knowledge of basic laboratory the surface tension and allows for enhanced formation procedures/Mycology/1 of hyphae, blastospores, and chlamydospores. True hyphae process of true septate hyphae resulting in square Microbiology/Apply knowledge of fundamental conidia. Which of the following yeasts is characteristically Answers to Questions 11–14 positive for germ tube production? A careful evaluation of the tube origin biological characteristics/Mycology/1 for constriction is required to avoid a false-positive 12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida glabrata Microbiology/Apply knowledge of fundamental 13. B Germ tube–negative isolates producing dark biological characteristics/Mycology/2 brown to black colonies on niger seed agar and a positive urease test are presumptive of 13. A positive germ tube test is a tube test are all used for the presumptive presumptive identification for C. Which of the following yeasts produces only blastoconidia on cornmeal Tween 80 agar? Microbiology/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological characteristics/Mycology/2 Blastoconidia Pseudohyphae Arthroconidia Cryptococcus spp. Given the following It is usually considered a contaminant but is an results, what is the most likely identiﬁcation? A The yeast isolate is inoculated directly into the molten identiﬁcations/Mycology/3 agar base free of carbohydrates or is poured as a 17. Chlamydospore production is demonstrated by suspension onto a yeast nitrogen agar base plate. Carbohydrate assimilation tests are used for the germ tube is a presumptive identiﬁcation along identiﬁcation of yeast isolates by inoculating with the production of blastoconidia, terminal media: chlamydospores, and pseudohyphae. Containing yeast extract Microbiology/Apply principles of basic laboratory procedures/Mycology/1 19. No further testing is needed for identiﬁcation Microbiology/Select course of action/Mycology/3 7.
French gastronome Oxford Lectures on Poetry order telmisartan 40mg on line, ‘Shakespeare’s Theatre and Audience’ Tell me what you eat purchase telmisartan 40mg line, and I will tell you what you are discount 40 mg telmisartan with amex. Brahmanic saying La Physiologie du Goût () In illness the physician is a father; in convalescence buy telmisartan 20 mg cheap, a friend; when health is restored, Edouard Brissaud ‒ he is a guardian. Russell, Lord Brain A symptom that cannot be simulated cannot be a ‒ symptom of hysteria. British neurologist Attributed In the post-mortem room we witness the ﬁnal result of disease, the failure of the body to solve its problems, and there is an obvious Paul Broca ‒ limit to what one can learn about normal business French surgeon and anthropologist transactions from even a daily visit to the Private practice and marriage—those twin bankruptcy court. Canadian Medical Association Journal : () Letter, April () Freud’s discovery of unconscious motivation, and the importance of the experiences of early A. Gerard Brom ‒ infancy for the subsequent development of the personality, has profoundly inﬂuenced our It is with coarctation surgery as with love: rather conception of human nature, and had lasting easy to do but difﬁcult to understand. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery : () Doctors Past and Present ‘The Doctor’s Place in Society’ () The doctor occupies a seat in the front row of the Jacob Bronowski ‒ stalls of the human drama, and is constantly Polish-born British biologist and broadcaster watching, and even intervening in, the tragedies, At bottom, the society of scientists is more comedies and tragi-comedies which form the raw important than their discoveries. Symptoms and Signs in Tropical Medicine In: Manson’s I do not believe that any man fears to be dead, but Tropical Diseases (th edn), G. Saunders () An Essay on Death François Joseph Victor Broussais The ancient Inhabitants of this Island were less troubled with Coughs when they went naked, and ‒ slept in Caves and Woods, than Men now in Paris physician and protagonist of the erroneous Chambers and Feather beds. What determines the feel not themselves dying, and therefore still hope difference between particular diseases is nothing but to live. Ltd () No one should approach the temple of science with the soul of a money changer. Austrian physiologist Journal of Bacteriology : () Teleology is a lady without whom no biologist can live. Edinburgh physician and author Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital : () It is not a case we are treating; it is a living, palpitating, alas, too often suffering fellow creature. Jean de La Bruyère ‒ Lancet : () French author Symptoms are the body’s mother tongue; signs are There are but three events which concern man: in a foreign language. They are unconscious of Horae Subsecivae Series I, Introduction their birth, they suffer when they die, and they Science and Art are the offspring of light and neglect to live. A long illness seems to be placed between life and Attributed death, in order to make death a comfort both to those who die and to those who remain. Quoted with reference to osteopathy by Reginald Pound in Characters ‘Of Mankind’ (transl. Address, March () English writer, non-conformist preacher, and philosopher The captain of all these men of death that came William Buchan ‒ against him to take him away was the Scottish physician and medical reformer consumption; for it was that brought him down to the grave. Philadephia () Anthony Burgess ‒ It appears from the annual register of the dead British novelist that almost one half of the children born in Great Keep away from physicians. They leave it Domestic Medicine (th edn) () to Nature to cure in her own time, but they take the credit. Physicians should be consulted when needed, but Nothing Like the Sun () they should be needed very rarely. Euthanasia is a long, smooth-sounding word, and Reﬂections on the Revolution in France it conceals its danger as long, smooth words do, but the danger is there, nevertheless. Among the arts, medicine, on account of its Attributed eminent utility, must always hold the highest place. How much, not only of acres, but of his The Anatomy of Melancholy constitution, his temper, his conduct, character and nature he may inherit from some progenitor Tobacco, divine, rare, superexcellent ten times removed! Some evils admit of consolations, but there are no comforters Health indeed is a precious thing, to recover for dyspepsia and the toothache. The Meaning of Right and Wrong, Introduction Quoted October There are two kinds of appendicitis – acute appendicitis and appendicitis for revenue only. Commencement Address, Columbia University Rewards and Training of a Physician Samuel Butler ‒ William Cadogan ‒ British writer English physician Parents are the last people on earth who ought to The gout is so common a disease, that there is have children. A Dissertation on the Gout, and All Chronic Diseases, Jointly Notebooks () Ch. To these causes, I impute most of costs a lot of money to die comfortably, unless one their diseases. The more a thing knows its own mind, the more Introduction to Paediatric Radiology living it becomes. Don Juan Canto , Stanza Governing America Simon and Schuster, New York () Pierre Cabanis ‒ James S. Calnan ‒ French physician and philosopher British plastic surgeon, London Impressions arriving at the brain make it enter Since nearly every surgical operation begins into activity, just as food falling into the stomach with an incision in the skin and ends with excites it to more abundant secretion of gastric closure of the wound, knowledge of the juice. Preservatives are called preservatives because they Each in His Own Tongue help you live longer. The ﬁrst population is dying as a result of diseases makes him appear to know more than he does, of poverty (largely starvation and infection) and the second gives him an expression of the other half is succumbing to diseases of concern which the patient interprets as being on afﬂuence. The Way of an Investigator ‘Fitness for the Enterprise’ Dying Hymn Al Capp (Alfred Gerald Caplin) William B. Harvard Medical Alumni Bulletin : () Thomas Carlyle ‒ Scottish historian and philosopher Catalan proverb Self-contemplation is infallibly the symptom of disease.
Te initial bactericidal activities of densities demonstrated early bactericidal efect with delayed colistin and imipenem were attenuated by regrowth afer 6–8 regrowth afer 24-hour exposure (Figure 2(b)) best telmisartan 80 mg. All models with duplicate performance demonstrated similar bactericidal kill (duplicate data not shown) generic 40 mg telmisartan with visa. Te reasons of Conflict of Interests carbapenem resistance could be explained by the OmpK36 Te authors declare that there is no confict of interests and/or OmpK35 defects buy cheap telmisartan 20mg, which have represented the major regarding the publication of this paper telmisartan 40mg on-line. In that study, carbapenem-based References therapy (most commonly combined with amikacin) still had a good outcome with a 90% clinical success rate. Bonomo, “Extended-spectrum - our strain Kp830 was resistant to amikacin but suscepti- lactamases: a clinical update,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, ble to colistin, there is a need to document the in vitro vol. Paterson, “Optimizing therapy for might suggest high-dosage colistin alone or in combination infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae producing extended- with imipenem to treat serious carbapenem-resistant K. Bush, “Carbapenemases: the versatile exhibiting susceptibility or low-level resistance to colistin -lactamases,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews,vol. Luh, “Relationships againsttheisolatewithnormalinoculumbuttherewasan between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in inoculum efect. Te inoculum phenomenon of declining Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial infections from BioMed Research International 5 1991–2003 at a university hospital in Taiwan,” International  C. Yu, tazobactam, and the inoculum efect in tests with extended- “In vitro activity of colistin sulfate against Enterobacteriaceae spectrum -lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae,” Antimi- producing extended-spectrum -lactamases,” Journal of Micro- crobial Agents and Chemotherapy,vol. Yan, “Prevalence and characteristics of ertapenem-resistant Kleb- siella pneumoniae isolates in a Taiwanese university hospital,” Microbial Drug Resistance,vol. Yan, “Characterization of carbapenem-nonsusceptible Kleb- siella pneumoniae bloodstream isolates at a Taiwanese hospital: clinical impacts of lowered breakpoints for carbapenems,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, vol. Box 5165665931, Tabriz, Iran 5Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Buali Research Institute and Department of Microbiology and Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Correspondence should be addressed to Kiarash Ghazvini; ghazvinik@mums. Tis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Tuberculosis is still one of the most important health problems in developing countries and increasing drug resistance is the main concern for its treatment. Tis study was designed to characterize the drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from patients sufering from pulmonary tuberculosis in northeast of Iran. In this cross-sectional study during 2012-2013, drug susceptibility testing was performed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in northeast of Iran using proportional method. Among 125 studied isolates, 25 mycobacteria (20%) were diagnosed as nontuberculosis mycobacteria. Among the remaining 100 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, the resistance rates were 7%, 7%, 3%, and 9% against isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and streptomycin, respectively. Regarding the high rate of nontuberculosis mycobacteria, it is recommended that confrmatory tests were performed before any therapeutic decision. Introduction Drug resistant tuberculosis is the main problem in con- trolling tuberculosis. In contrast to drug susceptible cases, One-third of the world population is contaminated by patients who have been infected with drug resistant strains Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Everyyear,about9million need two years of treatment instead of 6 months and the people sufer from active tuberculosis, and about 2 million treatments are 70 times more costly in addition to much die because of this disease . Tuberculosishasbeenreportedinall national studies stated that the resistance against antitu- the provinces in Iran, but this rate was higher in eastern part, berculosis antibiotics exists all around the world, and the as neighboring to Afghanistan and Pakistan which have the global prevalence of primary resistance is almost 10. Tis study was 0 designed to characterize the epidemiology of drug resistance Susceptible M. In this study, all culture positive samples from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in northeast of Iran during 2012 and 2013 were referred to Regional Reference Laboratory Table 2: Te distribution of drug resistance by age. All isolates were examined by Ziehl Neelsen staining and biochemical and phenotypic Age Sensitive Resistant Number Percentage methods. Biochemical and phenotypic methods for identif- range cases cases cation of mycobacteria include observation of rate of growth, < 5 0 0 0 0 colony morphology, pigmentation, and biochemical profles. Total 82 68 14 100% Also a multiplex polymerase chain reaction was carried out for confrmation as prescribed previously [11–14]. Fourisolateswereresistantagainstbothisoni- as Mycobacterium tuberculosis were determined against iso- azid and rifampin. Tree isolates (3%) were resistant against niazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and streptomycin by standard isoniazid and streptomycin and 4 isolates (4%) were resistant proportional method using Lowenstein-Jensen medium as against rifampin and streptomycin. Te proportion of resistant bacilli against given drug is old, and the most resistance cases were among 15–45-year-old then determined by comparing these numbers and express- groups. Susceptibility was As the epidemiological data of 18 patients were unclear, defned as no or less than 1% growth on media containing the we performed all the analysis on the remaining 82 patients.
A study of relative bioavailability generally involves the comparison of a 4 Figure 1 telmisartan 80 mg on line. For example buy telmisartan 80 mg online, the bioavailability of a new tablet formulation of a drug for oral administration can be compared with the oral bioavailability of the brand leader tablet formulation 20 mg telmisartan free shipping. The relative bioavailabilities may be calculated from the corresponding Cp vs T curves as follows: (Equation 1 discount 40mg telmisartan otc. In contrast, Absolute Bioavailability involves comparison of the drug’s bioavailability with respect to the corresponding bioavailability after iv administration. Absolute bioavailability may be calculated by comparing the total area under the Cp vs T curve obtained from the absorption route in question (often the oral route, although the approach can be used for other routes, such as the nasal, buccal, transdermal routes etc. In contrast, a drug administered via any other route (intramuscular, subcutaneous, intestinal, rectal, buccal, sublingual, nasal, pulmonary and vaginal) will have to circumvent various physical and chemical barriers (discussed below), so that the bioavailability will be lower in comparison to that obtained after iv administration. For example, to achieve 100% bioavailability via the oral route requires the drug to: • be completely released from the dosage form into solution in the gastrointestinal fluids; # Using C as an indicator of C is obviously a simplification that is not always valid and the relationship cannot be used p s without first estabkishing that C and c are consistently related. As many drugs bind in a reversible manner to plasmap s protenis, a more accurate index of C is the concentration of the drug in protein-free plasma Cs pfp. However, this measurement is more difficult to carry out practically than measuring the totle concentration of both unbound drug in total plasma, thus C is often used in preference to Cp pfp as an index of Cs 5 • be completely stable in solution in the gastrointestinal fluids; • pass through the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract; • undergo no first-pass metabolism in the gut wall or liver, prior to reaching the systemic circulation. The bioavailable dose (F) is the fraction of the administered dose that reaches the systemic circulation. For example, if a drug is given orally and 90% of the administered dose is present in the systemic circulation, F=0. Similarly, drugs administered by alternative routes, such as the buccal, sublingual, nasal, pulmonary and vaginal routes, must all cross the appropriate epithelial interfaces to reach the general circulation. The types of epithelial interfaces, the barriers they pose to drug absorption, and the routes and mechanisms of drug absorption across these interfaces, are described below. They consist of one or more layers of cells, separated by a minute quantity of intercellular material. All epithelia are supported by a basement membrane of variable thickness, which separates the epithelium from underlying connective tissues. Epithelial interfaces are involved in a wide range of activities such as absorption, secretion and protection; all these major functions may be exhibited at a single epithelial surface. For example, the epithelial lining of the small intestine is primarily involved in absorption of the products of digestion, but the epithelium also protects itself from potentially harmful substances by the secretion of a surface coating of mucus. Epithelia are classified according to three morphological characteristics: • the number of cell layers; • the cell shape; • the presence of surface specializations. A single layer of epithelial cells is termed simple epithelium, whereas those composed of more than one layer are termed stratified epithelia. Stratified epithelia are found in areas which have to withstand large amounts of wear and tear, for example the inside of the mouth, or the skin. Epithelial cells may be, for example, squamous (flattened), columnar (tall), cuboidal (intermediate between squamous and columnar) and may contain surface specializations, such as cilia in the nasal epithelium and keratin in the skin. Detailed descriptions of the epithelia present in the various routes of drug delivery are given in the relevant chapters; a generalized summary is given here in Table 1. In man, goblet cells are scattered amongst cells of many simple epithelial linings, particularly of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Mucus is mainly composed of long, entangled glycoprotein molecules known as mucins, which vary in length from 0. Each monomer consists of a protein backbone, approximately 800 amino acids long, rich in serine, proline and threonine. Oligosaccharide side chains, generally up to 18 residues in length, composed of N- acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, fucose and N-acetylneuraminic acid are attached to the protein monomers. Its most important property is its viscoelasticity, which enables it to act as a mechanical barrier, but also allows it to flow. Mucus acts as a physical barrier through which drug molecules must diffuse, prior to reaching the absorbing surface. The rate of diffusion through the mucus will be dependent upon such factors as the thickness of the mucus layer, mucus viscosity and any interactions which may occur between the drug and mucus. In the respiratory tract, mucus is also involved in the process of mucociliary clearance, which contributes to the epithelial barrier properties by entrapping potentially hazardous substances, such as dust and microorganisms, within a viscoelastic mucus blanket. The mucus is then propelled by the claw-like tips of “hair-like” cilia towards the throat (movement occurs in a downwards direction from the nasal epithelium, or 7 in an upwards direction from the lungs), where the mucus and any entrapped particulates are either swallowed or expectorated. Although this process is beneficial if inhaled particles are hazardous, drug particles may also be cleared by this mechanism. Hydrophobic membranes and cell junctions Membranes surround all living cells and cell organelles.
The rotator cuff is formed by four muscles: the supraspinatus purchase 40mg telmisartan overnight delivery, the infraspinatus buy generic telmisartan 20mg line, the subscapularis telmisartan 80mg online, and the teres minor cheap telmisartan 80mg. These four muscles form a conjoined tendinous cuff that attaches to the proximal humerus. Rotator cuff muscles take their origin from the scapula and essentially pull the humeral head into the glenoid. Rotator cuff strains can occur as a result of lifting relatively light as well as heavy objects. Repetitive use of the upper extremity also can lead to inﬂammation of the rotator cuff. In these cases, patients will note pain with forward elevation or abduction of the upper arm. Most strains and tendinopa- thy resolve with antiinﬂammatories and rehabilitative exercises. In some cases, the rotator cuff can tear away from the attachment on the proximal humerus. In these cases, patients notice pain and weak- ness with forward elevation and abduction of the shoulder. Small tears of the rotator cuff can be managed conservatively, using nonsteroidal antiinﬂammatory drugs and rehabilitative exercises. The usual treatment involves removal of the anterior portion of the acromion, release of the coracoacromial ligament, and repair of the torn rotator cuff to its humeral attachment. As stated earlier, the glenohumeral joint does not have tremendous osseous stability. Consequently, the glenohumeral capsule and liga- ments provide an important role as static stabilizers to the gleno- humeral joint. Dislocation of the glenohumeral joint usually results in detachment of the capsule and ligaments from the rim of the glenoid. In the most common dislocation, the humeral head dislocates in an anterior and inferior direction in relation to the glenoid face. However, isolated inferior dislocations and posterior dislocations of the glenohumeral joint also occur. Inferior glenohumeral dislocations are referred to as luxatio erecta, and the patient presents with the arm fully abducted. Posterior glenohumeral dislocations usually result from a seizure, an electrical shock, or a fall onto the anterior aspect of the shoulder. Anterior dislocations of the glenohumeral joint are signiﬁ- cantly more common than the other two types (Fig. These usually occur as a result of trauma to the shoulder while the arm is held in an abducted and externally rotated position or as a result of a direct blow to the posterior aspect of the shoulder. When evaluating a patient with a shoulder dislocation, the axillary nerve function should be evaluated prior to reduction, since this can be injured at the time of the dislocation. Injury to the axillary nerve would result in decreased sensation near the distal insertion of the deltoid muscle as well as diminished deltoid function. In the elderly population, recurrence of glenohumeral dislocation is quite rare, although attention should be paid to the function of the rotator cuff during early recovery after the dislocation. If there is evidence of rotator cuff tear early after a glenohumeral dislocation, consideration should be given to surgical repair. In the younger, more athletic popu- lation, glenohumeral dislocation frequently can lead to glenohumeral Figure 33. The risk of redislocation of the glenohumeral joint after a primary traumatic dislocation ranges from 70% to 90%. The subse- quent dislocations usually require less trauma than the index disloca- tion. In many cases, recurrent instability of glenohumeral joint requires surgical intervention. The treatment usually consists of repairing the anterior inferior capsule and the inferior glenohumeral ligament complex to the rim of the glenoid. This occurs when patients fall on the lateral side of their upper arm or run into a hard object, such as an outﬁeld wall in baseball. However, the clavicle is ﬁxed rigidly by the sternoclavicular joint and really does not rotate signiﬁcantly. However, in more signiﬁcant injuries, dis- ruption of the ligaments is accompanied by penetration of the delto- trapezial fascia by the distal clavicle. In this case, the distal clavicle is in a subcutaneous position and will lead to chronic pain. The usual treatment is for repair or reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments and repair of the del- totrapezial fascia. Although there is initial dysfunction of the shoulder, the scapula body heals, and good return of function is expected. The only fracture of the scapula that may require surgical intervention is an intraarticular fracture of the glenoid that involves greater than 30% to 40% of the articular surface with a signiﬁcant step-off on the joint surface, or a fracture of the glenoid neck in conjunction with a fracture of the clavicular shaft that allows for medial migration of the shoulder. Since this portion of the bone is in a relatively subcutaneous position, deformities are visually obvious.