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Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in Single Tablet Regimens for Initial HIV-1 Therapy: A Randomized Phase 2 Study tinidazole 1000mg without prescription. Insomnia Page 39 of 86 Final Report Update 2 Drug Effectiveness Review Project A case-control study (N=6110) of the relationship between use of zolpidem or other medications and occurrence of hip fracture in older women found an increased risk of fracture in 145 patients using zolpidem (adjusted odds ratio 1 buy discount tinidazole 1000 mg on line. It compared prasugrel (60 mg load, followed by 10 mg daily) to clopidogrel (300 mg load, followed by 75 mg daily). Data Abstraction Two reviewers abstracted the following data from included trials: study design, setting, population characteristics (including sex, age, race/ethnicity, diagnosis); eligibility and exclusion criteria; interventions (dose and duration); comparison group treatment; numbers screened, Antihistamines Page 13 of 72 Final Report Update 2 Drug Effectiveness Review Project eligible, enrolled, and lost to follow-up; methods of outcome ascertainment; and results for each outcome. The discovery that type 3 serotonin (5-HT3) receptor-blocking properties were contributing to the effect of one of the dopamine antagonists, metoclopramide, eventually led to the development of newer 11 antiserotoninergic drugs. The effect of prolonged hemoglobinopathies using Doppler echocardiography. Effects of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin compared over 52 weeks of treatment in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Forest plots of the risk difference for efficacy measures or adverse events are presented (where possible) to display data comparatively. In the lower dose trial, doubling the statin involved increasing simvastatin to 40 mg or atorvastatin to 20 mg, which effectively increased high-density 106 lipoprotein cholesterol significantly greater than switching to ezetimibe-simvastatin 10/20 mg. These studies are summarized in Evidence Tables 18 (pioglitazone), 19 (rosiglitazone), and 20 (new studies added for the updated report). Managing Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis: A Multimodal Approach. The R2 regimen demonstrated a higher response rate than untreated patients with FL grade 1-3A with high tumor burden per single-agent lenalidomide (ORR 75% vs 49%; CR 32% vs 13%, GELF criteria. Johnson JA, Li J-F, Wei X, Lipscomb J, Irlbeck D, et al. Furthermore, pooled data from two trials assessing activities of daily living (DAD, IADL, PSMS, CMCS) presented a statistically significant benefit for 5mg/day and 10mg/day donepezil treatment at week 12 and week 24. We did not find any studies directly comparing the efficacy, effectiveness, and tolerability of second-generation antidepressants between subgroups and the general population. Systematic reviews indicate whether or not there exists evidence that drugs differ Antihistamines Page 10 of 72 Final Report Update 2 Drug Effectiveness Review Project in their effects in various subgroups of patients, but they do not attempt to set a standard for how results of controlled trials should be applied to patients who would not have been eligible for them. Search strategies Original searches Database: EBM Reviews - Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials <4th Quarter 2005> Search Strategy: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 mometasone. Adequateapproachestoconcealmentofrandomization: Centralized or pharmacy-controlled randomization Serially-numbered identical containers On-site computer based system with a randomization sequence that is not readable until allocation Other approaches sequence to clinicians and patients Inferior approaches to concealment of randomization: Useofalternation,caserecordnumber, date of birth, or day of week Open random numbers lists Quick-relief medications for asthma Page 72 of 113 Final Report Update 1 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Serially numbered envelopes (even sealed opaque envelopes can be subject to manipulation) Not reported 3. Cardiovascular or treated for gonorrhea and chlamydia inflection. Rates of mild-to-moderate hypoglycemia were reported in 36% of subjects who received exenatide 10 mcg twice daily, 14% with 5 mcg twice daily, and 3% with placebo. We received comments from six pharmaceutical companies. We identified one subgroup analysis of AD patients with concurrent vascular risk factors from a placebo- 91 55 controlled RCT of rivastigmine. Efficacy of etanercept on rheumatic signs and pulmonary function tests in advanced ankylosing spondylitis: results of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study (SPINE). About one third of the samples of patients with acute HIV infection tested falsely negative. Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone): comparison of continuous versus delayed therapy in a six-year organized multiple sclerosis trial. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is essential for vascularization of the gas- trointestinal tract. Effectiveness: The extent to which a specific intervention used under ordinary circumstances does what it is intended to do. Pegylated interferons for hepatitis C Page 7 of 65 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project 2. Clinical effect of combination therapy of pioglitazone and 2 an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. Withdrawal due to adverse event was similar for both. Human data from patients undergo- may be an interesting strategy for the treatment of thrombosis. Preventionofpostoperative nauseaand vom iting:A ctive-controland placebo-controlled trials A uth or W ith drawn/ Y ear L ostto fu/ R esults -Satisfaction R esults -R esource utiliz ation Setting A nalyz ed Sennaraj Parentalsatisfactionscore(0= notatallsatisfied;10= fully 2002 N R /N R /150 satisfied):8. A ntich olinergicoveractive bladdersyndrom e drugs com pared with oth erdrugs N um ber with drawn/ A uth or, lostto fu/ M eth od ofoutcom e assessm entand tim ing of Y ear analyz ed assessm ent Holm es U nclear D ay tim efrequency :m easuredintotalvoidsover3day s; 1989 N octuria:m easuredby totalvoidsover3nightsrange; Incontinence:ratedusing linearanaloguescale M adersbacher U nclear Bladderdiary 1999 O xy= O xybutynin,F la= F lavoxate,C le= C lenbuterol,Prov= Propiverine,Pro = Propanth eline,Pl= Placebo,R C T = R andom C ontrolledTrial,N S = N otsignificant Overactive bladder 150 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 3. In vitro T-cell depletion does not significantly affect the rate similar study is currently ongoing in the United States.

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Sertraline versus paroxetine in the treatment of panic disorder: an acute generic 500 mg tinidazole with mastercard, double-blind noninferiority comparison order tinidazole 500 mg mastercard. The activation of TFC3 promotes the A MYC rearrangement predicted an inferior outcome in DLBCL in survival of BL cells (thus intensifying BCR signaling through the most studies, but it is not yet entirely clear if this is due to the MYC PI3K pathway) and their proliferation by up-regulating the expres- rearrangement itself or because 58% to 83% of MYC-translocated sion of CCND3 (Figure 2A). When the antibody bound to the mutantepitope, the antibody-epitope complex reverted to the same structure as the antibody bound to the original type. Second-generation antidepressants 77 of 190 Final Update 5 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Gastrointestinal bleeding 240 241, 242 Evidence from one good and two fair case-control studies indicate an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding during SSRI treatment. By contrast, after antibod- ies appeared, chronic infection was correlated with significantly higher viral diversity and rates of evolution than occurred when the infection was eventually cleared. The study population often includes people with a particular problem or disease. Although the incidence of dry mouth (pooled rates, 56% compared with 20%; pooled relative 38, 40 risk, 2. Of 46 included studies, 74 percent were supported financially by pharmaceutical companies; 17 percent were funded by governmental agencies or independent funds. Triple-class antiretroviral drug resistance: risk and predictors among HIV-1-infected patients. It is hoped that this effort will identify standard criteria by Suggestions which both fit and less fit CLL patients may be selected for trials and that can be used to stratify patients within a trial to evaluate how fitness Cancer screening ● Whole-body skin examination annually. Study Selection Selection of included studies was based on the inclusion criteria created by the Drug Effectiveness Review Project participants, as described above. For tropism testing from proviral DNA, which is used in case of undetectable viral load or low level viremia, the same FPR cut-offs can be used. Production only around period of insertion of cervical mucus is stimulated by hormones (estro- N Depo-Provera: it could take up to 1 year gen produced in growing follicle). Fluticasone+Salmeterol - Exacerbations (requiring ER/hospital admission) Study name Statistics for each study Odds ratio and 95% CI Odds Lower Upper ratio limit limit p-Value Aalbers et al 2004; Aalbers et al 2010 0. Sensitivity analyses removing studies with potential heterogeneity (such as first episode) did not resolve this heterogeneity, confirming the need to use a random effects model. Follow-up by mail showed that the groups had similar rates of a “close secondary attack that required rescue medication” (9% with combination therapy and 21% with monotherapy). Half- life: The time it takes for the plasma concentration or the amount of drug in the body to be reduced by 50%. In contrast to other antifungal drugs, voriconazole penetrates well into the CNS. At basic resource level, a minimum of Do not forget to sensitize key players of the diagnostic/pathology services, nursing and onco- general population such as women’s groups and logy services, palliative and psychosocial services as religious leaders or other community leaders. Now do a dye test to check your repair is watertight. Apixaban metabolism and The clinical circumstance will dictate the urgency for laboratory pharmacokinetics after oral administration to humans. The SIT arm contained significantly more patients with virologic treat- ment failure. The effect of timing of ondansetron administration on its efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and cost-benefit as a prophylactic antiemetic in the ambulatory setting. Se- These are plant-derived anti-mitotic agents and act vere skin sensitivity can occur in previously irradi- by inhibiting microtubule assembly. Constipation Drugs Page 5 of 141 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is the most common and best studied functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder. Some of these compounds allogeneic HSCT on overall survival may be offset by nonrelapse have been developed expressly to target molecular lesions that are treatment-related mortality. Watkins PB, Zimmerman HJ, Knapp MJ, Gracon SI, Lewis KW. There are four procedures to determine GFR, of which the CKD-EPI formula has become established after scientific consideration, at least in mildly restricted renal insufficiency. Different doses of omeprazole in the maintenance treatment of patients with peptic ulcers resistant to H2-blockers. Duodenal ulcer healing at 4 weeks in comparisons of proton pump inhibitor with H2 receptor antagonist 100% O O O P O L P O O O O OL O P O O 90% P L OO R O 80% L 70% 60% 70% 80% 90% H2 % healing Duodenal ulcer healing rate at 4 weeks Estimated healing rate When H2 healing is… Mean 95% CrI Lansoprazole 60% 73. This chapter begins with a summary of what high highPD-1 ) exert negative regulatory effects on both immunoreac- morphology and immunophenotyping can tell us about the GC tive T cells and B cells and are required to shut off the GC reaction reaction, both the B-cell component and the microenvironment, and and prevent excessive immune responses and autoimmunity; these then provides a discussion of similar issues in FL. Effect of pretreatment with omeprazole on the cure rate. Antiemetics Page 453 of 492 Final Report Update 1 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 14.

Celecoxib was also associated with lower rates of clinical ulcers and bleeds relative to nonselective NSAIDs in a recent meta-analysis of 33 data from Pfizer records of 18 primarily short-term randomized controlled trials discount 300mg tinidazole overnight delivery. Publication bias: A bias caused by only a subset of the relevant data being available order 1000mg tinidazole free shipping. Adverse effects Based on pooled estimates across the four placebo-controlled trials, total withdrawals were less with exenatide 5 mcg twice daily than with placebo (relative risk 0. The first, which evaluated patients with low back pain, found no significant differences between the 2 long-acting opioids in the likelihood of experiencing any adverse event, withdrawal due to adverse events, occurrence of constipation, or occurrence of sedation. No significant change in creatinine clearance was noted in either group. This review focuses on the initial intrinsic TIC of the anticoagulant and endothelial interactions of aPC in the same phenotype found almost immediately after severe injury with tissue model led to rapid mortality with massive intravascular thrombosis, hypoperfusion. For the five epitopes listed above, each host had viral populations dominated by escape mutants only for those epitopes that they could present by their class I MHC molecules. Case reports, case series, and single-arm extension studies also were excluded. Several types of bias can appear in published trials, including selection bias, performance bias, detection bias, and reporting bias. Because of enhanced risk of liver toxicity during the first 18 weeks of treatment in previously untreated women with CD4 T cell counts of more HIV and Pregnancy 535 than 250/µl, treatment should be monitored closely and frequently, especially during the dose escalation period (Boehringer 2004). For losartan, percent reduction in proteinuria was –48% at 6 months (95% CI, –32 to –63; P<0. Chang J, Patton JT, Sarkar A, Ernst B, Magnani JL, Frenette parin in a double-blind randomized trial. The second publication, a post- hoc analysis of data from the CAPRICORN trial, compared rates of atrial and ventricular 69 arrhythmias. It is important to perform a Introduction trial with a standard DDAVP dose administered intravenously, VWD is an inherited autosomal disorder of deficient (type 1 or 3) or subcutaneously, or intranasally after baseline levels of VWF:Ag, dysfunctional (type 2 variants) VWF. Atypical antipsychotic drugs Page 156 of 230 Final Report Update 3 Drug Effectiveness Review Project REFERENCES 1. There was no difference between gabapentin and placebo in measures of function or quality of life. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-IV. Incidence and risk factors of thrombocytopenia in patients receiv- ing intermittent antiretroviral therapy: a substudy of the ANRS 106-window trial. Double-blind comparison of omeprazole 20 mg OM and ranitidine 300 mg NOCTE in duodenal ulcer: a Taiwan multi-centre study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Testing for co-receptor usage (Tropism testing) Since CCR5 blockers are effective only when a predominant R5 virus is present in the patient and co-receptor switch is not systematic, a baseline determination of the co-receptor usage of the virus is mandatory. Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) guidelines for treatment of paediatric HIV-1 infection 2015: optimizing health in preparation for adult life. Invasive pneumococcal disease among HIV-infected children, 1989- 2006. M ost fre que ntlyre porte d 33at base line and 51during U K ,D e nm ark adve rse e ve ntsw e re aggravationof asthm a the tre atm e nt pe riod (F air) (not significantlydiffe re nt be tw e e nthe thre e W ithdraw als(adve rse e ve nts): tre atm e nt groups),follow e d byflu-like 6 disorde r,and he adache. One trial reported that women in early (3-12 months amenorrhea) as well as late 44 menopause (>12 months amenorrhea) had benefit. Over the last 2 decades, the discovery of mutations in genes leading to hereditary disorders of iron overload, iron deficiency, and iron maldistribution have accelerated our understanding of human iron homeostasis. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups after adjusting for baseline variables such as sex, age, and severity of disease. This includes most of the gastrointestinal the branches of the coeliac and superior mesenteric arteries drain into tract, liver, gall-bladder, spleen and pancreas. Evidence of efficacy compared with ® ® placebo was available for glatiramer (Copaxone ), interferon beta-1a IM (Avonex ), interferon ® ® beta-1a SC (Rebif ), and interferon beta-1b (Betaseron ). The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 1993;91(6):1146-54. Comparison of the effects of two antidepressants on exercise performance of the female patients with fibromyalgia. Burger JA, Tsukada N, Burger M, Zvaifler NJ, Dell’Aquila M, Kipps lymphoma development and evolution. The onset of type 1 diabetes is often in childhood or in young adulthood, but can occur in adults as well. Epub ahead of print HIV and Pregnancy 543 Birkhead GS, Pulver WP, Warren BL, et al. It is a novel strategy to stem the spread of HIV with ARVs (mainly used: TDF or TDF+FTC) in at-risk HIV-negative populations such as MSM, female sex workers or injecting drug users.

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It is challenging to estimate the number of different clones SPECIFICITY AND CROSS-REACTIVITY 51 from the naive repertoire that respondtoaparticular peptide order 1000mg tinidazole fast delivery, although recent technical breakthroughs may soon provide more data (Yewdell and Bennink 1999) buy tinidazole 1000mg low price. The treatment of CAPS is Criteria 1, 2, and 4 therefore based on addressing thrombosis as well as the inflamma- Criteria 1, 3, and 4 and the development of a third event after more tory response. In a 28 shorter trial (12 weeks), donepezil was superior to galantamine in its effects on cognition, functional status, and caregiver and clinician satisfaction. What was the funding source and role of funder in the study? Secondary outcome measures, such as the mean change in ADHD rating scale total and subscale scores, resulted in similar findings. Neuropathic pain 23 of 92 Final Update 1 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Table 4. All safety data reported can be found in the evidence tables cited above. Cutaneous B cell lymphomas usually grow as red to violaceous nodules and are easily mistaken for Kaposi’s sarcoma. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor The past quarter-century has witnessed a tremendous expansion in (TFPI) inhibits this complex by interaction of its 2 Kunitz domains. Placebo-controlled trials ofskeletalm uscle relaxants inpatients with spasticity Interventions A uth or Type ofStudy, Dose Enrolled Y ear Setting Duration Eligibility C riteria A nalyz ed PopulationC h aracteristics G elenberg C rossover(notclearif A :Dantrolene 50-800 Patients with 20 M eanage=49 90 randomiz ed) mg(meandose not moderate-severe 55% M ale 1973 reported) spasticity 20 R ace unreported U. Trials comparing LDL-c lowering/HDL-c raising abilities of 2 or more statins Clinical Trial Funding Source Kai T et al, 2008 None Open-label, single-center 27 patients 6 month treatment period Statins Page 185 of 395 Final Report Update 5 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Ciclesonide (Alvesco) - A new inhaled corticosteroid for asthma. N-of-1 trial: A randomized trial in an individual to determine the optimum treatment for that individual. History of fibromyalgia ranged from 10 years to 13 years. The effectiveness of antipsychotic medications in patients who use or avoid illicit substances: results from the CATIE study. Despite its relatively • The abdominal oesophagus measures approximately 1 cm in length. Chilkoti G, Sharma CS, Kochhar A, Agrawal D, Sethi AK. Macdessi JS, Randell TL, Donaghue KC, Ambler GR, van Asperen PP, Mellis CM. Long-acting opioid analgesics 43 of 74 Final Update 6 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project 76. In the overall study population, compared with aspirin alone, dual therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin did not significantly reduce risk of any of the secondary endpoints of all-cause mortality (5. An HIV PCR test should be considered only if there is evidence of acute HIV infection of the index patient. Rates of moderate to severe adverse events ranged from 16% to 30% in methylphenidate groups and 16% to 21% in placebo groups. Exclusion codes: 2=ineligible outcome, 3=ineligible intervention, 4=ineligible population, 5=ineligible publication type, 6=ineligible study design Exclusion Excluded trials code Head-to-head trial Jasinski D, Krishnan S. Without maintenance therapy the platelet count will decrease in most patients and it drops to the pre-treatment levels after about a month (Godeau 2007). Drugs studied were abatacept, 152 153,253 154 adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab. Of note, risk assessment has changed in the last years: following the Swiss statement (EKAF 2008, see chapter on ART and Prevention), the newest British PEP guidelines have modified their recommendations: in case of an HIV+ source person without detectable viral load, PEP should only be provided after receptive anal intercourse. A placebo-controlled trial in Malawi showed an efficacy of 74% using PCV7 (French 2010). Adolescents • Adolescents were studied in a small number of short-term trials that involved immediate- ® release methylphenidate or methylphenidate OROS (Concerta ). Statistically significant: A result that is unlikely to have happened by chance. Whether NOACs are The ABLE study was designed to evaluate the acceptability and efficacious and safe for this indication is currently unknown. The lesions of cutaneous mucormycosis may develop a thickened firm eschar overlying deep soft tissue infarction Treatment. However, assessment of the amount of rivaroxaban present in significant variability with respect to assay sensitivity depending a patient may be desirable in certain clinical situations such as on the thromboplastin reagent used. Additional renal monitoring (urine dipstick, alpha-1- microglobulin, cystatin C-GFR or the albumin/creatinine ratio) should be used for renal safety monitoring or screening of tubular injury. FVIII T1⁄2 can be proteins prolonged in mice when LRP1 is blocked.

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Posterolaterally another opening in the capsule per- 48 purchase tinidazole 500 mg otc. Exclusion Excluded studies code # Head-to-head trials Day J order tinidazole 300mg, Briscoe M, Rafeiro E, et al. Effectiveness One fair study, based in a primary care setting, provides mixed evidence on the effectiveness of paroxetine compared to placebo. Included systematic reviews were also rated for quality (see appendix C) based on pre- defined criteria, based on a clear statement of the questions(s), inclusion criteria, adequacy of search strategy, validity assessment and adequacy of detail provided for included studies, and appropriateness of the methods of synthesis. Clinical heterogeneity was not significantly different and OS in high-risk infants was in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with 11q23 rear- similar to that of older high-risk children. However, mean change in weight was greater in the 25, 26, 29, 82, 252, 317, 319 clozapine groups than the risperidone groups in 4 trials reporting these data. The majority of AML patients have genomics technologies, numerous new mutations or gene expres- an intermediate cytogenetic risk, with most of them exhibiting a sion signatures have been identified that now allow us to decipher normal karyotype (Figure 2). Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2010;125(2):390-396. Several other combinations have been investigated, such as cladrib- ine with rituximab, methylprednisolone plus rituximab followed by Other variations have been tested to further improve the efficacy of alemtuzumab, or rituximab plus alemtuzumab. Trials examining combination therapy compared pioglitazone to a sulfonylurea with both groups receiving various oral 111, 133, 137 141 hypoglycemic agents or insulin or metformin. Although trials of baclofen and dantrolene found significant benefits or trend toward benefit from active treatment, the data on metaxalone was 56, 153 mixed. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic cri- teria and long term health risks related to polycystic – condomize! Saxagliptin given in combination with metformin as initial therapy improves glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with either monotherapy: a randomized controlled trial. Nephrology, dialysis, transplantatio : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. The • The clavicle articulates medially with the sternum and 1st costal car- weakest point of the bone is the junction of the middle and outer thirds tilage at the sternoclavicular joint. Matos JPS, de Lourdes Rodrigues M, Ismerim VL, Boasquevisque EM, Genelhu V, Francischetti EA. B-cell or circulating immunoglobulin levels observed. Prophylactic antiemetic efficacy of granisetron or ramosetron in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Tolerability of maraviroc was excel- lent and did not differ from that of placebo. Dexamethasone, granisetron, or both for the prevention of nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy for cancer. Addition of formoterol or montelukast to low-dose budesonide: an efficacy comparison in short- and long-term asthma control. In the case of “reactive screening test – negative confirmatory test”, acute HIV infection cannot be excluded when HIV-specific antibodies are not yet formed although the p24 antigen is present. Although mutators are typically rare in freshly grown laboratory cul- tures, hospital isolates of E. Efficacy on climacteric symptoms and safety of low dose estradiol transdermal matrix patches. Trials comparing LDL-c lowering/HDL-c raising abilities of 2 or more statins Clinical Trial Funding Source Schulte et al. SEER data also tion in first remission may improve PFS and OS for patients with indicate that, across all patients diagnosed with NHL, 1/3 will PTCL,25,26 but the benefit of this approach remains unproven. Quality assessments of randomized controlled trials of beta blockers for coronary artery bypass graft…………………………………………………………………………………………………. This analysis detected no statistically significant differences in adverse events between elderly and younger (under 65) Targeted immune modulators 100 of 195 Final Update 3 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project patients. In both the double-blinded BEYOND trial, which lasted up to 3. Combined, the studies randomized 1429 patients to esomeprazole 20 mg, esomeprazole 40 mg, or placebo daily for 6 months. Quantification of latent tissue reservoirs and total body viral load in HIV-1 infection. Adverse Events What are the comparative incidence and severity of complications associated with the use of these drugs? They propose various models of selection within and be- tween hosts that could be tested by further sampling and analysis.

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